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Gardens have been made in Turkey since ancient times. Ancient settlements like Catal Huyuk and the Hittite capital Hattusas (Boğazköy) had enclosed outdoor space which may have been used as gardens. The Bronze Age settlements like Troy (Truva) had palace courts like those at Mycenae. The Greeks and Romans built towns with gardens, like Ehpesus, which had gardens comparable to those in Delos and Pompeii. Constantinople had gardens similar to those in Rome itself. Marie-Luise Gothein suggests that the Great Palace in Constantinople had a character somewhere between the Emperor's Palace in Rome and Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli. The Turks reached Turkey via Iran and therefore had knowledge of Persian gardens. The Ottoman Turks made palace gardens in Bursa, Edirne and Istanbul of which Topkapi Palace is the best surviving example. Religious outdoor space was also important in Islamic Turkey, notably the courtyards of mosques and medressas. Turkey came under European influence in the nineteenth century and the garden-making tradition became stronger.
Traditional Turkish houses always had a garden, no matter what the size of the house was itself. The Turks usually built the garden before proceeding to build the house. This attracted the attention of the French architect Le Corbusier who wrote: "The Turk first of all lays out the garden and plants trees; the Frenchman cuts down the trees to build the house..."
Perhaps if any one feature can be singled out as basic to the atmosphere of a garden, it is the presence of fine trees. The unfortunate trend of developmental builders in cutting down trees in a wholesale manner, and the growing use of treeless fields for new building, has focused attention on the property owner who must begin with nothing when it comes to trees.
Architects agree that a single shade tree, even of medium height, can make a very great difference in the comfort and liveability of a house and it's garden areas. A tree in leaf can reduce noises from the street and a tree tall enough to throw shade over the roof can materially reduce cooling costs during the summer. Trees can lessen the amount of dust around a house and provide protection from winds. Properly situated, they can sharply alter the lines of your house. They can give a small house dignity; appear to reduce the ungainly height of a tall house; soften the lines of a new house and provide welcome contrasts in color and texture. You need to plan from the beginning to plant new trees that will harmonize with the colors of your house and best suit its architectural style, as well offer areas of shade or semi-shade during the hottest part of the day.
In deciding what trees you wish to plant, or those which you wish to keep, take into account their ability to thrive in your climate and soil conditions. Also, find out their rate of growth. If you have a new house you will want rapid-growing trees and shrubs that bloom within two to three years after transplanting. Sometimes, however, as in foundation planting, a slower rate of growth is advantageous; it means the tree will not be bothered by crowding.
The shape, color of blossoms and foliage, height and spread, habits - you will want to avoid trees that mess up a lawn or terrace with seed droppings or insects. Such as Dut (Mulberry) Trees which are marvelous shade providers, but raise havoc when their fruit falls onto patios or traffic areas. Trees must be judiciously placed in or near the garden in order to provide shade where wanted, but not where it would block the sun from areas of the garden that require it...
From an article at: gardenvisit.com