Turkey Holiday Information
Holiday Blog

Home | About Turkey | Beaches | Weather | Photos | Videos | Airports | Tourism Information | Visitor Resources| Add Listing
Blue Cruises | Cuisine | Fashion | Music | Films | Dance | Ceramics | Gardens | Books | Destination Map | Site Map | Contact

Turkish Cities


Holiday Activities

Dalyan Fun
Bird Watching
Scuba Diving
Boat Tours
Ski in Turkey
Win a Villa
Turkish Maps
Turkey Recipe
Ethos Pathos

Home | Turkish Gardens | Vegetables 1 | Vegetables 2 | Vegetables 3 |

- A small garden, figs, a little cheese, and, along with this, three or four good friends—such was luxury to Epicurus... Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900)


The cultural requirements of Squash and Pumpkins ( Turkish: Kabak ) are similar, and there is often great confusion in differentiating the two.

  • Pumpkin-the edible fruit of any species of Cucurbita, used when ripe as a table vegetable or in pies; flesh is somewhat coarse and/or strongly flavored, hence is not generally served as a baked vegetable.
  • Summer Squash-The edible fruit of any species of Cucurbita, commonly C. pepo, used when immature as a table vegetable.
  • Winter Squash-The edible fruit of any species of Cucurbita used when ripe as a table vegetable or in pies; flesh is usually fine-grained and of mild flavor, hence is suitable for baking.

Most of the seeds of pumpkin and squash will not germinate satisfactorily in cold soil, and the plants are injured by light frosts. Planting should be delayed until the soil has warmed at a depth of four inches and all danger of frost has passed. The use of summer squash transplants should be considered if early harvest is important.

The use of black plastic mulch will conserve moisture and help control weeds in the row. Spacing of the plants or seeds in the row depends on the growth habit of the vegetable. For bush type squash and pumpkins, hills of two plants should be spaced three to four feet apart with rows on four to five foot centers. For vining types, hills of two plants should be spaced five feet apart with rows on seven foot centers. The vining types of squash and pumpkins need the extra space and will invade even more space if allowed, so plan and plant accordingly.

Important insect pests of pumpkin and squash are the squash bug, squash vine borer, cucumber beetle and aphids. Important diseases are powdery mildew, downy mildew, angular leaf spot, black rot, gummy stem blights, mosaic viruses and bacterial wilt.

Only the female flowers produce fruit; male and female parts are in separate flowers. Male flowers emerge first, followed by the females.

Summer squashes of all types and varieties should be harvested when they reach a size of four to six inches long and 1.5 to 2.5 inches in diameter. This ensures high-quality fruit and additional fruit production. High-quality winter squashes and pumpkins are associated with maturity, so they should not be harvested until they are fully ripe. Fruits subjected to a hard frost will not keep; harvest should be completed before cold weather. A portion of the stem is usually left attached to the pumpkin or squash at harvest time. Halloween pumpkins are most attractive when a stem or "handle" is carefully allowed to remain.

Store only those fruit that are free of cuts, wounds and insect or disease damage. Immediately after harvest, the fruit should undergo a ripening or curing process to harden the shell. A curing period of about two weeks at 75 to 85 degrees F with good circulation is desirable. Store at 50 to 70 degrees F with humidity between 50 and 70 percent.


Tomatoes ( Turkish: Domates ) are one of the most popular of all home garden vegetables. Originating in Central and South America, the tomato was thought by early American colonists to be poisonous and was not recognized as a useful vegetable until the 1800s. Eaten raw or in innumerable cooked dishes, today the tomato is a daily part of the Turkish diet. When grown as staked plants, tomatoes require a relatively small amount of space, yet are capable of producing 8 to 10 pounds or more of fruit per plant. Tomatoes are low in calories and a good source of vitamin C.

Tomatoes are warm-season plants and should be planted only after danger of frost has passed. Temperature is an important factor in the production of tomatoes, which are particularly sensitive to low night temperatures. Blossom drop can occur in early spring when daytime temperatures are warm but night temperatures fall below 55 degrees F, as well as in summer when days are above 90 degrees F and nights above 76 degrees F.

Tomatoes can be grown on many different soil types, but a deep, loamy soil, well-drained and supplied with organic matter and nutrients is most suitable. As with most garden vegetables, tomatoes grow best in a slightly acid soil.

Tomatoes respond well to fertilizer applications, especially phosphorus. Excess nitrogen fertilizer can result in plants with extremely vigorous vine growth but little fruit production.

Tomatoes are usually categorized as early, mid-season or late. Due to their long growing season and temperature requirements, tomatoes are set out as transplants in gardens in colder climates. Tomatoes may be planted anytime after the last spring frost date. When purchasing tomato transplants, choose those with straight, sturdy stems about the thickness of a pencil. They should have 4 to 6 young true leaves, no blossoms or fruit and be free of insect pests and diseases.

Plants in individual containers or cell packs experience little or no transplant shock and become established quickly. Tomato plants will develop roots along the stem and may be set deeply at transplanting with the first set of leaves near the soil surface. If transplants are in peat pots, remove the rim of the pot or be sure the rim is below the soil surface so that the soil ball will not dry out.

Tomatoes grown unstaked are usually planted 3 feet apart in rows 5 feet apart. Plants to be staked are planted 2 feet apart in rows 3 to 4 feet apart. Plants to be caged are planted 30 to 36 inches apart. Stakes and cages should be placed at planting time or soon after so as to not disturb the roots. Unstaked plants should be mulched with clean straw, black plastic or another suitable material to keep the fruit off the ground and prevent rotting.

Where space is limited or soil conditions poor, tomato plants can be grown in containers using a disease-free planting mix. Any container with adequate drainage is suitable. Pay special attention to water and fertilizer needs of container-grown tomato plants.

Once the tomato plants are established, apply a mulch to conserve moisture and suppress weed growth. If weeds do appear, they may be pulled by hand or removed by shallow cultivation. An even moisture supply is important, especially once the tomato fruits begin to develop. If the soil becomes too dry, blossom-end rot can be a problem. If too much water is applied at one time, ripening fruit may split.

Staked plants are usually pruned to a single or double stem and periodically tied loosely to the stake with soft twine. Pruning is accomplished by removing all the branches or "suckers" that grow from the leaf axils, leaving only the main stem or the main stem and one additional branch near the base. Unsupported and caged tomatoes may be left to branch normally. Staked and pruned tomatoes produce fewer but larger fruit than caged or unsupported plants.


Commonly grown Onions ( Turkish: Soğan ) are the mild types, such as White and Yellow Sweet Spanish, and the more pungent globe types. The pungent onions are better suited to long-term storage. The common onion, one of the most widely grown onions, is grown from either seed, plants or sets for use as both green onions and dry bulbs. The home gardener will usually have more success with sets. Any standard onion variety or hybrid can be used for green bunching onions if harvested at the proper stage of maturity. Onions can be used as green onions within 30 days if grown from plants or sets, or 40 to 50 days if grown from seed. For dry onions from sets or plants, 100 or more days are required from planting, depending on the variety grown.

The potato, or multiplier, onion and the Egyptian onion are grown from vegetative parts rather than seed. The underground portion of the potato onion (Allium cepa var. solanium) is a compound bulb formed from the segregation of a large mother bulb. Each bulb in the compound bulb produces 6 to 12 plants. The principal use of these onions is the production of early green bunching onions.

The Egyptian onion (Allium cepa var. viviparum) produces clusters of small bulbs called bulbils at the top of the seed stalk in late summer. The bulbils are used to produce very early green onions. Both potato and Egyptian onions are planted in the fall, overwintered with some mulch protection, and brought into production in the early spring. These onions are referred to as "winter onions."

The onion is adapted to a wide range of temperatures and is frost-tolerant. Best production is obtained when cool temperatures prevail over an extended period of time, permitting considerable foliage and root development before bulbing starts. After bulbing begins, high temperature and low relative humidity extending into the harvest and curing period are desirable. A constant supply of adequate moisture is necessary for best results. For onions started from plants, a light mulch will help conserve moisture for uniform growth.

An important aspect of onion development is the length of day (photoperiod). Photoperiod, along with temperature, controls when the onions form bulbs. Some onion varieties are short-day and form bulbs when the days are 12 hours or less in length. Other varieties are long-day plants, forming bulbs when there are 15 or more hours of daylight. The specific photoperiod of some onion varieties makes them unsuitable for northern climates, as they will begin to bulb when the plants are too small.

Unfavorable growing conditions may result in onions bolting or sending up flower stalks. If flower stalks should develop, carefully cut them from the plant immediately or bulbing will be reduced.

Onions grow best in a loose, well-drained soil with high fertility and plenty of organic matter. Avoid heavier soils such as clay and silt loams, unless they are modified with organic matter to improve aeration and drainage. Onions are sensitive to highly acid soils.

Onions should be planted early in the spring as soon as the soil can be worked. Onion seed is sown 1/2 inch deep, while sets are planted one to two inches deep. A three-inch plant spacing is desirable. Rows should be 12 to 18 inches or more apart depending on the method of cultivation. For wide row planting, plants or sets are placed on 3-inch centers. Onions are ideal for wide row planting, but keep in mind that weeding must then be done by hand.

After the plants are well-established, a mulch will conserve soil moisture, prevent soil compaction and help suppress weed growth. In windy areas, small plants must be protected with a windbreak of some type to prevent serious damage or loss of plants. Weeds, insects and diseases must be controlled. Thrips, onion maggots, downy mildew, neck rot, pink root and smut can all harm onion crops.

Harvest onions when the tops have fallen over and dried. On sunny, breezy days, onions may be pulled and left in the garden for a day or two to dry before they are taken to a curing area. Curing must take place for the onions to be stored for any length of time. Cure onions by placing them in a warm, well-ventilated area until the necks are thoroughly dry. With warm temperatures, good air circulation and low humidity, curing should be completed within two weeks after harvest. Onions are best stored in a cool, moderately dry area in ventilated containers.

Home | Turkish Gardens | Vegetables 1 | Vegetables 2 | Vegetables 3 |

mouseover to control direction of scrolling
click on the images above to view the websites

Interested in Turkey..? Check out the websites below which provide a whole wealth of information for travellers planning a holiday in Turkey
Turkey Holiday Information | Dalyan Villas | Dalyan Apartments | Bird Watching in Turkey | Turkey Recipes
Adana Airport | Ankara Airport | Antalya Airport | Bodrum Airport | Turkey Ski | Dalaman Airport | İstanbul Airport | İzmir Airport
Dalyan Travel | Dalyan Dive Centre | Dalyan Hotels | Hotels in Dalyan | Dalyan Fun Pub | Dalyan Roundtable | Dalyan Donmez Hotel
Adana | Alanya | Ankara | Antalya | Aydin | Belek | Bodrum | Bursa | Çamyuva | Cesme | Cappadocia | Dalaman | Datça
Dalyan Information | Denizli | Didim | Diyarbakir | Ephesus | Erzincan | Erzurum | Ethos Pathos | Fethiye | Giresun | Göcek
Gaziantep | Hisarönü | Icmeler | İstanbul | İzmir | Kalkan | Kaş | Kaunos | Kemer | Konya | köyceğiz | Kuşadası | Malatya
Mardin | Marmaris | Mersin | Muğla | Nemrut Dag | Olympos | Ortaca | Pamukkale Cotton Castles | Patara | Samsun | Sarigerme
Side | Tarsus | Tekirova | Trabzon | Troy | Turkish Maps | Uludag | Van Information | Dalyan Dream Homes
Cataract Eye Drops | Katarakt Goz Damlaşi | Wedding in Turkey | Win a Villa!

© Copyright 2000- The Ethos Group in Partnership with Özalp Turism San. Tic. Ltd. Şti. - All Rights Reserved.